Because the classroom is the primary locus of instruction, PIRLS 2021 pays particular attention to classroom contexts associated with the teaching of reading. These include student engagement, teaching strategies for comprehension skills, types of texts assigned, organization for teaching, classroom library resources, and classroom assessment. Complementing the introduction of digitalPIRLS, PIRLS 2021 collects data on information technology in the classroom, including access to digital devices (including desktop computers, laptops, or tablets) for reading instruction, use of technology, and instruction in online reading. PIRLS 2021 also collects data on classroom climate and on teacher preparation, professional development, and experience.