PIRLS 2021 collects data on important student attributes including student reading attitudes and student demographics. Students who are motivated to read and have a strong reading self-concept tend to have better reading comprehension,131 and cultivating these attitudes also may support students in becoming lifelong readers. Results from PIRLS have shown relationships between positive reading attitudes and reading achievement. It is noted that achievement and attitudes can be mutually reinforcing of one another. Better readers may enjoy and value reading more than poorer readers, thus reading more and further improving their skills. Because student demographics are important for analyzing reading achievement, PIRLS also collects data on student gender and age.