PIRLS 2021 International Results in Reading
Home Environment Support
All of the data about Home Environment Support were collected from students’ parents via the Home Questionnaire, or “Early Learning Survey.” The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center conducted a series of analyses to establish that there was little or no discernable impact on the responses to the Home Questionnaire due to COVID-19 or delayed testing. However, throughout PIRLS’ history, some countries have struggled to attain high participation rates from parents, and some countries have been unable to administer the Home Questionnaire. To caution readers about low response rates, there are designations in the exhibits. If data were available for less than 40 percent of students in a country, the country is designated with a “y,” and the data are not reported. If data were available for 40–50 percent of students, the country is designated with an “x,” and the data are reported but do not contribute to the International Average.
Many of the PIRLS 2021 Context Questionnaire items were combined into scales measuring a single underlying latent construct related to reading achievement. This section provides results for four scales: Home Socioeconomic Status, Home Early Literacy Activities Before Primary School, Parents Like Reading, and Could Do Early Literacy Tasks When Beginning Primary School.
PIRLS used item response theory (IRT) scaling methods, specifically the Rasch partial credit model (PCM), to place items on a scale and produce scale scores (see Chapter 15 in Methods and Procedures: PIRLS 2021 Technical Report). Each context questionnaire scale enabled students to be classified into regions corresponding to high, middle, and low values on the construct. The “About the Scale” tab associated with each exhibit contains the questionnaire items and describes how the three regions reported in the exhibit were defined in terms of combinations of response categories.